The case is booked as an Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy. Let’s learn a couple of things here from what the surgery will be, to the type of anesthesia, to post-op pain management.
What’s an Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy?
- Central line (Cordis for volume in emergency)
- Vigileo/FloTrac – SVI, SVV, SVR, CO great markers for fluid management
- Induction: lidocaine, Propofol, rocuronium/sux (dependent upon if blockage from tumor necessitating RSI or not)
- Maintenance: sevoflurane
- Extubation: attempt in OR
- Fluid management
- Colloid vs. crystalloid
- CVP vs. Esophageal doppler vs. pulse pressure vs. stroke volume variation
- Keep SVI >35 mL/m2 to decrease risk of AKI
- To reduce lung damage and ARDS
- 4-6 cc/kg ventilation strategy (lung-protective)
- Optimization of PEEP
- PIPs <35mmHg, Plateau pressure <25mmHg
- Pain Management
- Pre-op adjuvant pain meds:
- Oxycodone XR 20mg PO if <70y/o or 10mg if >70yo
- Celecoxib 400mg PO if <70y/o or 200mg if >70yo
- Pregabalin 150mg PO if <70y/o or 75mg if >70yo
- Thoracic Epidural: Improved blood flow to anastomotic site, earlier extubation times, reduced pneumonia rates.
- Pre-op adjuvant pain meds:
- Vasopressors: phenylephrine. Consider norepinephrine (improved CO), vasopressin if needed.
40-something year old female who was newly diagnosed with squamous cell cancer of her distal esophagus about 2 months prior. Presented to ED with N/V, epigastric pain, malnourishment. Had underone chemo and radiation. PMH achalasia, endometriosis. NKDA. Scheduled for Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy. Pt appeared cachectic, on TPN, 45kg, 5’5″. L chest port-a-cath in place.
In OR, pt received T7 epidural. RSI w cricoid pressure throughout. 37Fr L DLT placed gently without resistance. 31cm at teeth noted after fiberoptic bronch check. 20g L radial a-line placed. Surgeon stated no cervical approach needed, therefore, I placed a R IJ cordis and CVP. FloTrac for SVI, SVR, SVV, CO.
Albumin for IVF. Goal SVI >35, CVP 5-10. Phenylephrine for SBP >90. OGT (resistance met prior to first dark marking on tube that was expected with 6 cm tumor). BIS goal 40-60. Epidural initially dosed with 5ml 2% lido with epi. Another dose given roughly 30 minutes later. Remaining dosing throughout case with 4ml 0.25% bupi. Acetaminophen IV 1000mg prior to incision. Fentanyl IV for abdominal laparoscopy.
Abdominal laparoscopy –> tumor unable to be freed/resected via laparoscopy. Converted to laparotomy. Tumor adhered to pericardium.
R thoracotomy: OLV at 200ml TV, RR 21 (volume-restrictive ventilation strategy 4-6ml/kg). Good lung isolation. Good anastamosis of tissues. Two lung ventilation according to surgeon. Recruit lungs to decrease atelectasis.
Emergence: + Pressure support through DLT. Extubate in OR.
- Early communication with surgeon(s).
- Lung-protective strategies
- Volume restriction for IVF
- Appropriate pressor choice
- Pain control: thoracic epidural (0.125% bupiv + hydromorphone 10mg/ml), IV low dose ketamine (0.1-1mg/kg/hr), precedex if tolerated, if PO then preop pain meds above. If not PO, then IV acetaminophen RTC, IV ketorolac RTC (if ok with surgeon). Continue baseline pain regimen if patient is a chronic pain patient.
- Setup is key. Discuss which side for the cervical approach (if doing) prior to doing neck lines so not in the surgical field.
- Univ of Colorado: Management of Esophagectomy
- Anesthesia during Esophagectomy. J Thorac Dis. 2017 Jul; 9(Suppl 8): S705–S712.
- Operative Techniques in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery: Technique of Open Ivor Lewis Esophagectomy
- Anesthesia for Esophageal Surgery. P. Slinger (ed.), Principles and Practice of Anesthesia for Thoracic Surgery, 2011
- Esophagectomy Perianesthetic Care from a Surgeon’s Point of View. SOJ Anesthesiol Pain Manag, 1(1), 1-7. 2014.
- Esophagectomy PPT
Pulmonary Complications due to Esophagectomy. J Cardiovasc Thorac Res. 2011; 3(3): 93–96.
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